A solid carbide drill for all of your high performance drilling needs!
Fractional, letter, wire, and metric sizes available. Immediate availability from our large inventory. Special sizes available on request
Drill bit geometry has several aspects:
The spiral (or rate of twist) in the drill bit controls the rate of chip removal. A fast spiral drill bit is used in high feed rate applications under low spindle speeds, where removal of a large volume of swarf is required. Low spiral drill bits are used in cutting applications where high cutting speeds are traditionally used, and where the material has a tendency to gall on the bit or otherwise clog the hole, such as aluminum or copper.
The point angle, or the angle formed at the tip of the bit, is determined by the material the bit will be operating in. Harder materials require a larger point angle, and softer materials require a sharper angle. The correct point angle for the hardness of the material controls wandering, chatter, hole shape, wear rate, and other characteristics.
Carbide Drillsare extremely hard, and can drill virtually all materials while holding an edge longer than other bits. The material is expensive and much more brittle than steels; consequently they are mainly used for drill bit tips, small pieces of hard material fixed or brazed onto the tip of a bit made of less hard metal. However, it is becoming common in job shops to use solid carbide bits. In very small sizes it is difficult to fit carbide tips; in some industries, most notably PCB manufacturing, requiring many holes with diameters less than 1 mm, carbide bits are used.
The lip angle determines the amount of support provided to the cutting edge. A greater lip angle will cause the bit to cut more aggressively under the same amount of point pressure as a bit with a smaller lip angle. Both conditions can cause binding, wear, and eventual catastrophic failure of the tool. The proper amount of lip clearance is determined by the point angle. A very acute point angle has more web surface area presented to the work at any one time, requiring an aggressive lip angle, where a flat bit is extremely sensitive to small changes in lip angle due to the small surface area supporting the cutting edges.
The length of a bit determines how long a hole can be drilled, and also determines the stiffness of the bit and accuracy of the resultant hole. Twist drill bits are available in standard lengths, referred to as Stub-length or Screw-Machine-length (short), the extremely common Jobber-length (medium), and Taper-length or Long-Series (long).
Most drill bits for consumer use have straight shanks. For heavy duty drilling in industry, bits with tapered shanks are sometimes used.
The diameter-to-length ratio of the drill bit is usually between 1:1 and 1:10. Much higher ratios are possible (e.g., "aircraft-length" twist bits, pressured-oil gun drill bits, etc.), but the higher the ratio, the greater the technical challenge of producing good work.
The best geometry to use depends upon the properties of the material being drilled. The following table lists geometries recommended for some commonly drilled materials.
Tool geometry Workpiece material Point angle Helix angle Lip relief angle
Aluminum 90 to 135 32 to 48 12 to 26
Brass 90 to 118 0 to 20 12 to 26
Cast iron 90 to 118 24 to 32 7 to 20
Mild steel 118 to 135 24 to 32 7 to 24
Stainless steel 118 to 135 24 to 32 7 to 24
Plastics 60 to 90 0 to 20 12 to 26